Abu Raihan Al-Biruni or Abu Raihan Mohammed Ibn Ahmad Al-Biruni (973- 1048 AD) was a famous Arab scholar and researcher of medieval times. He was a very basic and deep thinker. His full name is “Abu Raihan Mohammed Ibn Ahmad al-Biruni”. Commonly known as Al-Beruni, he lived outside the city. It was located in the heart of the Turkish Turkistan. The city was near the capital of Khawarijim. Today the city has become dead in the river. This place is now called Al-Biruni city. He was proficient in mathematics, astrophysicist, chemistry and natural science. In addition, neutral analysts of geographers, historians, mathematicians, philosophers and medical sciences, linguists and theology. Independent thinking, open-mindedness, courage, Fearless critics are recognized as best times for the right opinion. Hijri is mentioned in the second half of the fourth century and the first half of the fifth century as the period of al-Beruni.
He first attracted the attention of Muslim scholars in the field of Oriental wisdom, especially India’s knowledge-science. Professor Maapar said, “Al-Beruni is not only in the Muslim world, but he was one of the best wise people in the whole world. He was born on September 4, 973, in an extremely general Iranian family. He spent the first 25 years of his life in his hometown.
During the study, he published some of his early works and exchanged letters with renowned philosopher and scholar, Ibn Sina. Al-Biruni’s mother tongue was Khawarijim regional Iranian language. But he wrote his writings in Arabic. He had a great scholarship in Arabic. He also composed some poems in Arabic. In the end, however, some books were written in Persian or both Arabic and Persian languages. He knew the Greek language too. He had knowledge of Hebrew and Syrian also.
He returned to his homeland in 1008 AD and was received in honor by Shah Abul Hasan Ali ibn Mamun. He received the patronage of his brother after the death of Ali ibn Mamun, and in addition to many political activities, he was also in charge of the monarchy. After the death of his army in 1016-17, Mamun occupied Sultan Mahmud Khawerijam. Mathematician Abu Nasser Mansur ibn Ali and physician Abul Khair al-Hussein Ibn Bab Al-Ghammar al-Bagd went to Ghajni with the grandmother. Here is the beginning of the golden age of his knowledge. Since then, he was perhaps the astronomer of the Shahi darbar of Ghazni. He came to North-Western India with Sultan Mahmud a number of times. He stayed for 12 years in India under the patronage of the Sultan of Ghazni. Here, learn Sanskrit language and Hinduism, Indian civilization, and culture, patriotism, social customs, rituals, Earned proficiency in superstitions, etc. He also gained knowledge in some regional languages of India. He compiled this chapter of an age with his knowledge and knowledge, his world famous book Kitabul Tariqil-Hind.
Al-Biruni suffered severe diseases at 63 years of age. Still, he lived for 12 years. On December 13, 1048, he died. There are a total of 113 books of al-Biruni. Of these, 103 books have been completed and 10 incomplete books have been mentioned. It appears from the sources found in various sources, the total number of books written by him is 180.